Sectionalism, Slavery, and Growth of the Republic

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Standards 4.54-4.8

4.54 Describe and explain the contributions of Sequoyah. (C, H, TN)

4.55 Describe the major events in Jackson’s presidency, including the corrupt bargain, the Indian Removal Act, reducing the national debt, preserving the union, and abolishing the national bank. (C, E, G, H, P, TN)

4.56 Analyze the impact of the Indian Removal Act on the Cherokee, detail their resistance to being removed, and map the movement west, including: (C, G, H, TN)

Primary Documents and Supporting Texts to Read: “The Star Spangled Banner”, Francis Scott Key; excerpts from letters of Meriwether Lewis from the Corp of Discovery; excerpts from Eliza Bryan of the New Madrid Earthquakes

The Growth of The Republic (1800-1850)

Students describe the emergence of a fledgling industrial economy. Students describe rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800, and the abolition movement to end slavery.

4.57 Analyze and describe the factors of the Industrial Revolution occurring in the United States and on Tennessee, including: (C, H, TN)

4.58 Explain the expansion of the plantation system and slavery as the demand for cotton production grew and the impact of the cotton gin. (C, E, G)

4.59 Contrast the emerging urbanization in the North with the agricultural South and the developing West. (C, E, G)

4.60 Describe and explain the contributions of Virginia Hill and Free Hill, Tennessee, Frances Wright and Nashoba, and Elihu Embree and their efforts to abolish slavery in Tennessee. (C, TN)

4.61 Describe the characteristics of slave life on plantations across the South. (C, E, P)

4.62 Using informational texts, explain the fight for Texas independence against Mexico and the contributions of Tennesseans Sam Houston and David Crockett. (H, P, TN)

4.63 Conduct a short research project detailing the surprise nomination and election of James K. Polk and list his accomplishments in office including Texas statehood, territorial expansion, and one term promise. (H, P, TN)

4.64 Cite evidence from informational texts explaining the causes, course, and consequences of the Mexican War, including Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor, and Mexican session. (G, H)

4.65 Identify prominent people and reform movements in the United States during the mid-19th century, including: (C, P)

• Dorothea Dix and her quest for prison reform and help for the mentally ill
• Horace Mann and public education
• Nat Turner and his resistance to enslavement
• Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison and the abolition of slavery

4.66 Write an expository piece describing the search for gold in California and its impact. (C, E, G)

4.67 Explain the events, political debate, and outcome of the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas and Nebraska Act. (H, P)

4.68 Create a visual display using multiple forms of media to name the states and territories. that existed in 1850, their locations, and major geographical features, including mountain ranges, principal rivers, and dominant plant regions. (G)

Primary Documents and Supporting Texts to Read: excerpts from the writings of Frederick Douglass; excerpts of the Autobiography of David Crockett 

Standards 8.46-8.71

The Sectionalism of the American North, South, and West (1800-1850)

Students analyze the paths of the American people in the three regions of the United States from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced as they became increasingly sectionalized.


8.46 Analyze the physical obstacles to and the economic and political factors involved in building a network of roads, canals and railroads , including Henry Clay’s American System,. (E, G, H, P)

8.47 Explain the causes and effects of the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States, and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities as a result of events such as the Great Potato Famine. (C, E, G, P)

8.48 Analyze the 19th century reforms influenced by the 2nd Great Awakening such as the Temperance Movement, Prison Reform, Mental Health Reform, and education, including tent meetings, establishment of new churches, Horace Mann, Dorothea Dix, and temperance societies. (C, P)

8.49 Analyze the women’s suffrage movement and its major proponents, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B. Anthony and examine excerpts from the writings of Stanton, Anthony and Sojourner Truth. (C, P)

8.50 Identify common themes in American art and literature, including transcendentalism and individualism by analyzing essays and stories by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. (C)

8.51 Trace the development of the agrarian economy in the South, the locations of the cotton- producing states, and the significance of cotton, the cotton gin and the role of Memphis as the Cotton Capital of the South. (C, E, G, P, TN)

8.52 Analyze the characteristics of white Southern society and how the physical environment influenced events and conditions prior to the Civil War. (C, E, G)

8.53 Write a narrative with supporting text describing the effects of the New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811-12 on the land and people of Tennessee. (G, H, TN).

8.54 Identify the constitutional issues posed by the doctrine of nullification and secession and analyze the earliest origins of that doctrine. (C, P)

8.55 Explain the events and impact of the presidency of Andrew Jackson, including the “corrupt bargain,” the advent of Jacksonian Democracy, his use of the spoils system and the veto, his battle with the Bank of the United States, the Nullification Crisis and the Indian removal. (C, E, G, H, P, TN)

8.56 Analyze the contributions of Sequoyah to the Cherokee. (C, TN)

8.57 Write a narrative piece that describes the impact of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and the struggle between the Cherokee Nation and the United States government and cites evidence from primary source accounts of the Trail of Tears. (C, G, H, TN)

8.58 Describe the concept of Manifest Destiny and its impact on the developing character of the American nation, including the purpose, challenges and economic incentives for westward expansion. (C, E, G, H, P)

8.59 Describe American settlements in Texas after 1821 and the causes for the Texas War of Independence, including the roles of David Crockett and Sam Houston in the war and the legacy of the Alamo. (G, H, P, TN)

8.60 Analyze the reasons, outcome and legacy of groups moving west including the mountain men/trail blazers, Mormons, missionaries, settlers, and the impact of the Oregon Trail and John C. Frémont. (C, G, H)

8.61 Describe the major events and impact of the presidency of James K. Polk, including his “Dark Horse” nomination, the settlements of the Oregon boundary, the annexation of Texas, and the acquisition of California through the Mexican War. (E, G, H, P)

8.62 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of the Mexican War, including the controversy over the Rio Grande boundary, the roles played by Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, the Mexican Cession and the Wilmot Proviso. (C, E, G, H, P)

8.63 Trace the major figures and events in the discovery of gold in California and its impact on the economy of the United States, including John Sutter, and 49’ers. (C, E, G, H)

Primary Documents and Supporting Texts to Read: excerpts from “The Declaration of Sentiments,” Seneca Falls Convention; excerpts from “Nature” and “Self-Reliance, Ralph Waldo Emerson; excerpts from “Walden” and “Civil Disobedience,” Henry David Thoreau; excerpts from “Ain’t I A Woman,” Sojourner Truth translated by Frances Dana Barker Gage; excerpts from Eliza Bryan of the New Madrid Earthquakes

Primary Document and Supporting Texts to Consider: excerpts from Roughing It, Mark Twain; excerpts from A Narrative in the Life of David Crockett of the state of Tennessee, David Crockett

Slavery in America (1800-1850)

Students analyze the growth of slavery and the resulting controversies.

8.64 Describe the significance of the Northwest Ordinance and the banning of slavery in new states north of the Ohio River. (C, E, P)

8.65 Describe the reasons for and the impact of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. (G, H, P)

8.66 Analyze the impact of the various leaders of the abolitionist movement, including John Brown and armed resistance; Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad; William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator; Frederick Douglass and the Slave Narratives; and Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Virginia Hill and Free Hill, Tennessee; Francis Wright and Nashoba Commune; and Elihu Embree’ s The Emancipator. (C, E, H, P, TN)

8.67 Explain the reasons for and the impact of the Compromise of 1850, including the roles played Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun and the Fugitive Slave Law. (C, E, G, H, P)

8.68 Explain the motivations behind passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, including the rise of the Republican Party, “Bleeding Kansas,” the Sumner Brooks incident, and the John Brown raid on Harper’s Ferry. (H, P)

8.69 Analyze the reasons for and applied by the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case and the resulting divisiveness between the North and South. (C, H, P)


8.70 Examine the arguments presented by Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln in the Illinois Senate race debate of 1858. (H, P)

8.71 Identify the conditions of enslavement, and explain how slaves adapted and resisted in their daily lives. (C, H)

Primary Documents and Supporting Texts to Read: excerpts from Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe; excerpts from the Lincoln-Douglas Debates; excerpts from Roger Taney’s decision in the Dred Scott case; excerpts from The Autobiography of Frederick Douglass, Frederick Douglass.